Cotton fabric is an exquisite biodegradable textile used to craft fashionable garments. Designers utilize it in creating beautiful clothing pieces such as summer dresses and chic tops as well as skirts and t-shirts with this fabric as the foundation.

Screen printing is a green textile finishing technique, using minimal water and energy resources and producing minimal wastewater waste.


Colorfastness refers to a fabric’s ability to keep its colors intact after printing, and choosing one with high levels of colorfastness will ensure that customers can use their new cotton garments without them becoming damaged through repeated washing or sun exposure. This revolution is what large format printing companies are developing.

Cotton fabrics offer endless printing options, from vibrant floral patterns to minimal designs that fit seamlessly with everyday life. Fiber structure and composition determine its colorfastness; be sure to know which standard best meets your intended use before purchasing fabric.

Cotton’s natural, renewable fiber feels luxurious against the skin and can be woven into an abundance of textures and patterns – making it suitable for many different applications, including apparel, upholstery, drapery and medical textiles.

Color Fastness to Wet Rubbing refers to a fabric’s ability to retain its colors after being washed, with cotton fabrics generally having higher Color Fastness ratings than wool and polyester fabrics. Pretreatment such as mercerizing, singeing, cellulase finishing and bleaching may help improve this property; such processes reduce friction resistance while floating colors thus improving Color Fastness in wet rubbing fabrics.

Colorfastness in fabric can be measured using several methods, including the AATCC 16 Option 3 test and ISO 105-X12 test. Both measures track how fading of a piece of fabric over time with exposure to artificial sunlight is progressed through over time – results of each are graded on an eight point scale, with 8 being considered ideal lightfastness and 1 being lowest lightfastness – these tests provide vital information about colorfastness of fabrics.


Crocking is an unpleasant yet costly problem that often plagues fabric furniture and fabrics. This phenomenon happens when fabric rubs against another material and some of its colors transfer onto it, creating unsightly discolorations or altering its structural integrity, leading to costly returns or returns of an entire shipment.

Crocking can be caused by several factors, including colorfastness and dyeing processes as well as improper washing or drying procedures. Printing methods used on fabrics may also contribute to its crocking. To minimize its incidence, always select high-quality fabric while following all cleaning and care instructions to maintain its quality and avoid this mishap.

Cotton fabrics that possess high levels of crocking resistance will stand up well under repeated rubbing and laundering, such as with regular laundry loads. Crocking resistance can be determined using the ACT crocking guidelines which measure how much dye transfers onto other materials when rubbed against, performed by rubbing test fabric against standard white cloth rubbing this test fabric against another fabric; results compared to AATCC color charts before assigning ratings accordingly.

Crocking of fabric is an integral component in assessing its performance in the field, and can have a considerable effect on which applications it suits best; for instance, fabric that tends to crock may not be appropriate for upholstery or drapery applications – in such instances a different material should be chosen instead.

Cotton is an extremely versatile fibre, and can be found in numerous products. Cotton’s cellulose fibres, which form part of its plant makeup, are natural vegetable fibres gathered into cotton bolls – seedpod-shaped seedpods which look similar to golf balls – containing short fibers which can then be combed out and spun into longer yarns before being woven into fabric fabric.

Cotton fabric is an environmentally-friendly material that has long been favored for clothing and home furnishings. Cotton’s soft yet durable nature make it the go-to material, especially among those seeking high-quality apparel. Long-staple cotton stands out as being particularly beloved, as its long silky fibres create soft garments. Although more costly than its shorter-staple counterpart, long staple cotton boasts high quality fibres which can be combed into smooth garments that last a long time.


Cotton is one of the most versatile textile fabrics used to craft clothing and other textile products, from dresses to other warm-weather apparel. Cotton’s softness and heat retention properties make it suitable for warm-weather apparel such as dresses; its breathability and strength properties add extra benefits. Unfortunately, cotton tends to pill or tear more easily than silk or wool but still remains extremely popular globally.

Cotton fibres are natural polymers of cellulose derived from cotton plants’ seedpods known as bolls, where the fine seed hair-like filaments of cotton reside before being collected, cleaned, spun into yarn, and eventually woven into durable cotton cloth that we recognize today.

Cotton fabrics depend on how tightly their fibres are interlaced together, with different kinds of weaving producing different styles of fabric with differing strengths. Woven cotton involves weaving two or more threads perpendicularly while knitted cotton has small braided rows. Cotton can also be woven in various thicknesses which alters both durability and feel of its fabric.

Cotton fabric is biodegradable and recyclable multiple times, making it an eco-friendly choice when grown organically and processed responsibly. Furthermore, unlike synthetic fabrics such as polyester or acrylic which release microplastics into waterways during production and disposal processes, cotton does not release microplastics into waterways like these synthetic fabrics do.

Cotton may not take dye well, but it can still be printed successfully if pre-treatments are given to it properly. Utilizing pre-mordanting and multiple “soak and dry” cycles as preparation is key when printing cotton (and other cellulose fibers). Soaking and drying fabric helps reduce shrinkage while improving adhesion and increasing tensile strength – while adding a urethane-silicone softener may further increase durability by smoothening its surface smoothness.

Dyneema offers several distinct advantages over conventional cotton reinforcements, such as higher tensile strength and decreased shrinkage, as well as less washing needed in production resulting in decreased energy and water usage during production.


Cotton fabric has long been valued as a natural material to create soft, comfortable clothing for human use. Cotton’s absorbency and lack of irritation make it perfect for soft yet comfortable clothing applications; its durability allows dyes to last through decades-long lifespans while its wide array of types provide unique characteristics and features for every task.

Cotton fibers are produced by cotton plants from their seed fluff. Once spun into threads, this cotton can then be used to craft sheets, t-shirts and other textile products made of cotton fibers. Cotton is the most commonly produced natural fiber on Earth – other natural fibers include silk from cocoons of silkworms; wool from sheep or alpaca fur; and linen made of stem fibres in flax plants.

Before cotton can become part of clothing or bed sheets, it must go through several steps of processing. Seeds must first be separated from fibers before cleaning them to remove foreign materials and smoothen out bumpy fibers – this process is called ginning and can either be performed manually or mechanically – before being sent in bales to textile mills for yarn production.

Once cotton has been processed, it can be printed with dyes to create an array of colours and designs. Dyes are fixed onto cotton through steaming or aging processes which may either be batch or continuous in nature; flash aging provides a quick fix by treating fabric faster with smaller machines and shorter steaming periods.

After printing, fabric is washed to remove excess dye and thickener from its surface. As with any surface treatment process, this step may cause its colour to change slightly depending on the thickener used and type of printing chosen; changes can be measured using an FTIR spectrophotometer which measures molecular changes within fabric surface.

Figure 5 depicts FTIR spectra of cotton fabric treated with gallotannin dye and unprinted with gallotannin; all peaks can be observed, though any gallotannin molecules have become detached from cotton cellulose molecules and separated.